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WASH 2011 program

The WASH Conference 2011 provided practitioners, students and academics with a unique opportunity to receive training in innovative tools and approaches for WASH program planning, delivery, and evaluation. Participants chose from a range of sessions (three hour to full day sessions), and learnt new skills to tackle the challenges often faced by practitioners in achieving program sustainability.

Towards sustainability in water, sanitation and hygiene - WASH 2011 conference

The conference was designed to bring people together to share perspectives, compare challenges and explore solutions WASH 2011 brochurefrom high level policies to on-ground projects. Through a combination of conference seminars, discussions, and training workshops, participants shared with and learnt from experiences from around the globe.





Monday (conference)


  • Clarissa Brocklehurst, Chief of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), UNICEF
  • Dr Junaid Ahmad, Sector Manager, Urban Water Africa Region, World Bank

Institutional sustainability

  • National institutions
  • Regional institutions-challenges of decentralisation for WASH service provision
  • Capacity building

Functional/environmental sustainability

  • What is the problem? Status and analysis
  • Optimising community management of rural WASH
  • Climate change, water resources, and eco-sanitation

Behavioural change & social sustainability

  • Planning for sustainable behaviour change
  • Assessing hygiene behaviour change
  • Factors affecting sustainability of hygiene behaviour change in communities and schools

Financial sustainability

  • Big picture: What will it take to achieve sustainable financing?
  • Strengthening public sector financing of service delivery
  • Alternatives to public sector financing


Tuesday (conference)


  • Dr Val Curtis, Director, The Hygiene Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  • Jaehyang So, Manager, WSP, World Bank

Institutional sustainability

  • Institutions and communities
  • Supporting entrepreneurship &  public/private collaboration

Functional/environmental sustainability

  • Rural and urban sanitation
  • Sustainability monitoring

Behavioural change & social sustainability

  • Gender and social inclusion – supports to sustainability in WASH
  • Hygiene promotion at scale and private sector marketing

Financial sustainability

  • Moving to financially sound utility and local government financing
  • Financing sanitation


 WASH 2011 conference_1

Wednesday - Friday (training)

1. Personal, professional and institutional attitude change: the keys to the success of CLTS and its scaling-up

Kamal Kar,  CLTS foundation

This training session explored the methodology of CLTS and showcased a simulated CLTS triggering within a community. Participants were exposed to techniques and tools for igniting ‘disgust’ and ‘shame’ around the practice of open defecation, with the goal of stimulating collective behaviour change to open defecation at the community level.

The training program had the following objectives:
1.    Participants to gain a clear understanding of the CLTS approach.
2.    Participants to receive hands-on training experience for triggering CLTS with rural communities.
3.    Participants to understand the need for attitude behaviour change to involve communities in initiating collective local action towards sustainable sanitation improvements.

The workshop included:
1.    A lecturette with PowerPoint presentations on CLTS
2.    Two role-play activities by the participants on conventional sanitation approach and CLTS triggering:
- conventional top-down and supply-driven implementation of sanitation programs by outside agencies and   extension staff
- participatory bottom-up facilitation of collective hygiene behaviour change through triggering of CLTS.
3.    18 minute BBC video documentary: “Clean Living” on a real life triggering of CLTS.
4.    Q&A session followed by discussion.
5.    Distribution of reading materials (CLTS Handbooks, Trainer’s Guide and other sources of information).

2. Performance monitoring for rural sanitation and hygiene programs 

Antoinette Kome, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

Christine Sijbesma, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Monitoring sanitation and hygiene behaviour is a complex topic, and often only the number of toilets is counted. While the introduction of CLTS has changed this “infrastructure focus” towards “use”, what is understood by ‘open defecation free’ (ODF) remains highly variable even within a single area.

Moreover, very few reliable data are available that show whether hygiene behaviours are  sustained, and most monitoring systems are in essence upward reporting systems. This is a key constraint for improving WASH governance, because the lack of reliable (performance) information limits evidence-based decision making especially at the local level. In this training, SNV and IRC shared the main elements of their performance monitoring approach currently used in the Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All program in five countries.

Learning objectives:
1.    Increased understanding of the complexities of monitoring hygiene behaviour change and intangible outcomes such as in WASH governance.
2.    Introduction of QIS (Qualitative Information Systems) a method that translates qualitative information into numbers and allows comparison over time and between locations.
3.    Reflection on the use of performance monitoring as a method for learning and action, as well as issues related to institutional embedding of improved sanitation and hygiene monitoring and application at scale.


3. Water and sanitation services that last: From implementation to service delivery  approach

Harold Lockwood, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre / Aguaconsult Ltd.

Catarina Fonseca, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Dr Mekala Snehalatha, CESS - Centre for Economic and Social Studies


This training session provided an introduction to the principles, components and outcomes of service delivery and life-cycle costs approaches based on the findings and preliminary research work done within the Triple S and the WASHCost projects.
The session was dynamic (including a speed-dating exercise) and the following were discussed:

1.    What constitutes a sustainable service?

2.    What are the benefits of sustainable service delivery approach?

3.    How to improve sustainability within your organisation’s remit?
An overview of models and examples of how to go from an ‘Implementation approach’ to a ‘service delivery approach’ will be provided.  Finally, we will elaborate on how to apply the building blocks for sustainable services at scale based on participants’ experiences.

At the end of the session we expected that participants would have become familiar with the service delivery approach and life-cycle costs approach, and acquired knowledge and tools to start applying both concepts in their own work.
A training folder with short descriptions illustrating most concepts was provided. All presentations and research documents mentioned were distributed electronically.


4. Scaling-up rural sanitation: Evidence-based learning and knowledge sharing

Almud Weitz, Regional Team Leader, Water and Sanitation Program East Asia and the Pacific

Eduardo Perez, Senior Water and Sanitation Specialist, Water and Sanitation Program

Cordell Jacks, International Development Enterprises, Cambodia

Tamara Baker, International Development Enterprises, Cambodia

Keryn Clark, RWSS Project, Timor-Leste

After many years of global and country-focused advocacy, sanitation remains one of the developing world’s most intractable challenges. Over the past 30 years, most rural sanitation projects have involved pockets of success that were small in scale;  expanding on the successes of small-scale projects to increase access on a large scale has been an enduring challenge. This is slowly changing. Over the past 3 -4 years, substantial efforts have gone into testing approaches and building up evidence of what works at scale and what doesn’t.

The training focused on addressing the rural sanitation challenge at scale, based on evidence and learning generated by WSP and partners (IDE Cambodia, and AusAID’s RWSSP in Timor-Leste) in a number of countries: Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Tanzania and Timor-Leste. The underlying programmatic approach combined two promising approaches, community-led total sanitation and sanitation marketing, under the umbrella of an ‘enabling environment’ at the policy and institutional level (central and local governments) for demand and supply to grow and sustain each other while catering to all classes of consumers, including the poorest. Country examples were used to explain the conceptual approach, results, challenges, and adaptability to other countries.

5. Water Safety Plans explained: What they are and how you can get involved

Dr David Sutherland, World Health Organization

Mien Ling Chong, World Health Organization

Riego de Dios Joselito, National Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Health (Philippines) 

The training session took participants through the Water Safety Plan (WSP) eleven-step process from preparation through system assessment; operational monitoring, management, and communication; to feedback and improvement.  It sought to illustrate how Water Safety Plans are a vital tool in ensuring environmental and functional sustainability.

The session sought to explain to participants unfamiliar with the content of Water Safety Planning what is involved in the process, how WSPs are applicable for any water supply (whatever the size of the water supply system), who is or should be involved in the process (both within and outside of the water supply organisation) and how different organisations can become involved in water safety planning. It made the link between WSPs and other activities and initiatives in the WASH sector.

The proposed structure was to use short presentations to describe each of the steps, with examples taken from the AusAID supported program and elsewhere to elaborate the steps, and then to ask one or two key questions which encouraged the participants to think about the key issues that water suppliers face in the preparation, implementation and monitoring of Water Safety Plans.


6. Behaviour change for WASH: A one-day course for practitioners

Dr Val Curtis, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Dr Robert Aunger, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Improving WASH requires changes in behaviour, whether in uptake and use of infrastructure, technologies or products, or in domestic and personal infection prevention behaviour (hygiene). Though considerable progress has been made in understanding the drivers and facilitators of health-related behaviour, and evidence abounds concerning novel approaches to behaviour change, the sanitation, hygiene and water sector has yet to benefit fully from this knowledge.

This workshop equiped WASH practitioners with modern approaches, tools and techniques to enhance behaviour change in WASH programs.

This one day course combined five short lectures on the state of the art in behaviour change with five exercises carried out in small groups where participants applied their own knowledge to WASH behaviour problems.
Course components:
1.    Overview of WASH behaviour: how interventions change environments (physical/social/biological), which change brains (plans/motives/habits), which change behaviour, which improve health.
2.    Analysing behaviour: A tool kit of techniques for Formative Research including script elicitation, video ethnography, tools for schools and projective techniques. How to organise an investigation to find out just what you need to know (and no more).
3.    Intervention choice and channel analysis: what is known about what works to change which behaviours, what different intervention channels (mass/community/individual) can and can’t do for you, and how to get the best ‘bang for your buck’.
4.    Intervention design: The creative process, the creative team, the brief, what you need to bring to the table, reverts and more reverts, getting the best out of the team, producing and testing the intervention.
5.    Organising, managing and evaluating your BC activities and the role of advocacy.


7. Costing sustainable services: The life-cycle costs approach

Catarina Fonseca, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre

Dr. Mekala Snehalatha, CESS - Centre for Economic and Social Studies

Harold Lockwood, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre / Aguaconsult Ltd.

This training session provided an overview of how to start applying the life-cycle cost approach (LCCA). Life-cycle costs represent the aggregate costs of insuring delivery of sustainable WASH services through a system’s cycle of wear, repair and renewal. Examples were discussed with participants from applying the methodology in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Andhra Pradesh (India), Mozambique. Participants had the opportunity to use the analysis templates.   

The session blended discussing evidence from the research as well as interactive exercises focusing mainly on:

1.    Applying LCCA: Where to start?

2.    Cost components and service levels

3.    Tools for data collection

4.    Introduction to (financial) data analysis

It was expected that at the end of the session participants would be familiar with:

1.    The principles, components and outcomes of the life-cycle costs methodologies for water, sanitation and hygiene in rural/ peri-urban areas and small towns.

2.    Tools for collecting and analysing cost and service level data at household, regional and national level;

3.    Preliminary findings from the WASHCost project and other organizations in applying the methodology.

A training folder with short descriptions illustrating most concepts was provided. All presentations and research documents mentioned were distributed electronically.
Methodological details were covered in the afternoon session.


8. Inclusive WASH Workshop 

Rosie Wheen, WaterAID Australia

Di Kilsby,  International Women’s Development Agency   

Juliet Willetts, Institute for Sustainable Futures / University of Technology, Sydney   

Katherine James, CBM   

Judy Hagan, Oxfam Australia   

Lisa Natoli, Burnet Institute   

Joel Fernandes, Timor-Leste DPO   

Huy Nguyen

Why - To be sustainable and effective, as well as to achieve social justice, WASH programs must address the needs of all in the community. While this is recognised by the sector, practitioners continue to encounter obstacles in putting this into practice.

What - While a plethora of tools already exist, practitioners often lack knowledge of where to find them and how to use them. In addition, they often encounter real or perceived indifference or even resistance to change. This workshop brought together experience and expertise in the areas of gender, disability and HIV/AIDS, to share fundamental principles and practical tools.

How - The workshop was interactive, fun and experiential, fostering reflection on participants’ own practice through various social inclusion ‘lenses’. The workshop approach built participants’ confidence in putting the learning into practice. Participants came away with practical exercises they can use in their own programs to build commitment to social inclusion, and with a toolkit of resources to put into practice right away in their own work.

Who - The workshop is a joint initiative with resource people from Burnet Institute, CBM, Institute for Sustainable Futures, International Women’s Development Agency, Oxfam and WaterAid, along with disability resource people from Australia and Timor-Leste.


9. Sanitation Marketing 101: Designing and implementing your program

Danielle Pedi, WaterSHED

Aun Hengly, WaterSHED-Cambodia

Tamara Baker, International Development Enterprises, Cambodia

Cordell Jacks, International Development Enterprises, Cambodia

With session design input from Marion Jenkins, WaterSHED/University of California at Davis.

This training aimed to equip practitioners and program managers with an understanding of the sanitation marketing approach, and an overview of the process (key phases, activities, methods, and resources) for designing and implementing a sanitation marketing program. The training provided an introduction to basic concepts, core strategies, and critical steps within a sanitation marketing program development cycle, drawing on the experience of Lien Aid, WaterSHED Asia, and International Development Enterprises (IDE) Cambodia. The training shared tools and tips for strategic planning, product development, partnership building and field implementation. Participants were introduced to methodologies for collecting and analysing sanitation market data and will work in groups to practice training and interacting with sales agents, enterprises and government officials. While the training used data and examples primarily from experience in sanitation marketing in Cambodia through Lien Aid/WaterSHED and IDE’s programs, it also drew on an example from Africa (Benin’s government-led approach) and elsewhere to illustrate the program development process from market research through to strategy development and design to implementation, monitoring, and scale-up.

10. Groundwater: A precious resource, but little understood

Paul Bolger, GHD

Groundwater is often identified as a potential water source, although it is not always possible to find suitable groundwater sources to meet emergency or development needs.  This training session was designed to provide WASH professionals (both in the field and their managers) a better understanding of the difficulties and uncertainties in finding and sustainably developing groundwater in some environments. It benefited WASH programs by outlining the potential scale and timing of investigations required before a groundwater source is developed.

The course aimed to provide a basic understanding of factors to be considered in identifying and managing sustainable groundwater sources.  These included:

1.    What is groundwater and how does it flow through the subsurface

2.    Groundwater occurrence and availability

3.    Variability of the quantity and quality of groundwater within an aquifer and naturally occurring properties

4.    What happens when we construct and pump from a groundwater bore

5.    Risks to groundwater sources - contamination from latrines and other contaminants including natural toxicants

6.    Monitoring and testing.

Examples and case studies from around the world were used to illustrate the course content. The training included presentations, group discussion and interactive activities.

Participants gained an understanding of:

1.    Where groundwater occurs in the landscape,

2.    Variability in quantity and quality of groundwater sources,

3.    Tools to identify and develop groundwater sources, and

4.    Management of groundwater to maintain sustainable supplies.


11. Monitoring and mapping tools for sustainability: Why, what, when & how?

Erik Harvey, WaterAid UK

This session looked at the key advantages and challenges with setting up and managing long-term, viable, sustainability monitoring and visualisation (mapping) systems.  Participants were given an opportunity to work through these issues using practical examples, covering both institutional and government monitoring scenarios.  The differences with water, sanitation and hygiene monitoring systems were also explored.

The session presented the existing data collection and visualisation tools that are available, including a demonstration of WaterAid’s spreadsheet-based WaterPoint Mapper and the progress being made on a similar sanitation mapper.

Learning objectives:

1.    Understanding of the advantages and key considerations involved with setting up sustainability monitoring and visualisation systems.

2.    Understanding of the relevant tools available.

3.    Detailed knowledge of the capabilities of WaterAid’s spreadsheet mappers.


12. Putting procedural equity into practice: Raising citizens’ voice in the regulation of  water services

Dr Laila Smith, AusAID (South Africa)

One of the greatest challenges to sustaining water services is the disconnect between service users and providers. Without resolving this issue, service providers will continue to face the challenges of vandalism to existing infrastructure, high non-payment levels and an unwillingness of users to take responsibility for maintaining the water and sanitation services they use.  Finding methods of engagement between citizens and providers is key to resolving service delivery bottlenecks.

The short-term objective of the ‘’Citizens Voice’’ model was to raise public awareness on water and sanitation services. The medium-term objective is to transform this public awareness into increased public capacity to play a local monitoring role in services. The long-term objective was to facilitate greater civil society involvement in the strategic planning of water services and in doing so to broaden the decision-making process (procedural equity) in the provision of water (distributive equity).

The training session introduced the challenges associated with service delivery in low-income countries from a regulatory perspective. The training explored methods for:
1.    strengthening low-income service users’ ability to hold local government to account;
2.    encouraging local authorities (officials and councillors) to be more responsive to citizens’ voice; and
3.    institutionalising public engagement in service delivery oversight.


13. The importance of sanitation – how can you bring about change?

Ben Fawcett, International WaterCentre

This workshop expanded upon the poster presented by Ben Fawcett during the conference, aiming to help participants develop strategies to bring about accelerated improvement of sanitation where they live and work. Participants were reminded of the appalling health and social impacts of inadequate sanitation, and of what is needed. Participants then studied the following four points and develop strategies to operationalise them: 
1.    The need to emphasise ‘excreta-related disease’.  The current ‘water-related disease’ terminology is unhelpful; how can it be modified – in education and training and in the minds of sector professionals, politicians and the public?
2.    The need to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of improved sanitation to politicians.  What are the key facts, who are the targets, and how should campaigns be managed?
3.    The need to emphasise work in poor urban areas. Why is this a priority, what is being done, what are the constraints, and how to accelerate this work?
4.    The need for champions of sanitation. Who could be recruited and how to use them?
The workshop will be highly participative, building in groups and plenary on participants’ experience and knowledge to devise strategies and to generate enthusiasm to take away from WASH Conference 2011


 *All images on the WASH 2011 pages are copyright of WaterAid



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